Resistant malaria spreading in South East Asia

熱度46票  瀏覽2次 時間:2019年7月25日 06:31

Resistant malaria spreading in South East Asia

MosquitoImage copyright Getty Images

Malaria parasites resistant to key drugs have spread rapidly in South East Asia, researchers from the UK and Thailand say.

[V/D ko5x R5J9g0 香港易事泊 Hong Kong e-Services Provider"b/SI K-[L9`4y

The parasites have moved from Cambodia to Laos, Thailand and Vietnam, where half of patients are not being cured by first-choice drugs. 香港易事泊 Hong Kong e-Services Provider'k9ER sqov6v+f

2~7c z+f$F*C g1AR0Researchers say the findings raise the "terrifying prospect" drug-resistance could spread to Africa.香港易事泊 Hong Kong e-Services Provider9|O E3M c

香港易事泊 Hong Kong e-Services Provider],g-f[4? |

However, experts said the implications may not be as severe as first thought.

9F'i6R3e-d\8A-r0

What is happening?

\hK ?/qt0Malaria is commonly treated with a combination of two drugs - artemisinin and piperaquine.香港易事泊 Hong Kong e-Services Providert;p,q ]d7zf6c u ^k

|X3bo:w)jn3a+N0The drug combo was introduced in Cambodia in 2008.香港易事泊 Hong Kong e-Services Provider;mp;tlB-K)Dn

Fi | x4X+[/m0But by 2013, the first cases of the parasite mutating and developing resistance to both drugs were detected, in western parts of the country.

O-BjMD0n)v0 香港易事泊 Hong Kong e-Services Provider4P/].pI,IaE

The latest study, published in the Lancet Infectious Diseases, analysed blood samples from patients across South East Asia.

IGh7@F*`0

#o \(Qt {oM0Inspecting the parasite's DNA showed resistance had spread across Cambodia and was also in Laos, Thailand and Vietnam.香港易事泊 Hong Kong e-Services Providerr_6Tg5u

香港易事泊 Hong Kong e-Services ProviderX}W;sA7ED#[|

It had also picked up further mutations, making it even more problematic.

-]~"kQ$b-R{.E0 香港易事泊 Hong Kong e-Services Provider2Bv2X8e_%L k}

In some regions, 80% of malaria parasites were drug resistant.香港易事泊 Hong Kong e-Services Provider:pQP;Z#`5?EK!CT

香港易事泊 Hong Kong e-Services Provider]T cG-}gt*K%v

"This strain has spread and has become worse," Dr Roberto Amato, from the Wellcome Sanger Institute, told BBC News.

!@CG s'n2G0

Does this mean the disease is becoming untreatable?

w2w"Z*U'zSJy4f0No.

)K^mN*LW0

9f~o'J8e{v0A second study, published in the same journal, showed half of patients were not being cured with standard therapy. 香港易事泊 Hong Kong e-Services ProviderL6]LZ(MU5g:z

G*^/sr2e qL/x3Zs]0However, there are alternative drugs that can be used instead.

5hXe$[ c9vC0 香港易事泊 Hong Kong e-Services Provider8M5h I`"cE%h

"With the spread and intensification of resistance, our findings highlight the urgent need to adopt alternative first-line treatments", Prof Tran Tinh Hien, from the Oxford University Clinical Research Unit, in Vietnam, said. 香港易事泊 Hong Kong e-Services Provider{d'X!q N7v,Oe3H*P

y3yqCyu [yLfn"o:t0That could include using different drugs alongside artemisinin or using a combination of three drugs to overcome resistance.

#y+H VK"?:t0

What's the concern?

P*rvx'`(s0Huge progress has been made towards eliminating malaria. However, the development of drug resistance threatens that progress.香港易事泊 Hong Kong e-Services Provider_#zn'RB,\8dI2O

香港易事泊 Hong Kong e-Services Provider-QBd9J;^/CZ;ob_'r$`

The other issue is if the resistance spreads further and reaches Africa, where more than nine in 10 cases of the disease are.

8xf ABk0

T.N(w S-im @ FE0"This highly successful resistant parasite strain is capable of invading new territories and acquiring new genetic properties, raising the terrifying prospect that it could spread to Africa, where most malaria cases occur, as resistance to chloroquine did in the 1980s, contributing to millions of deaths," Prof Olivo Miotto, from the Wellcome Sanger Institute and University of Oxford, said. 香港易事泊 Hong Kong e-Services ProviderXX9G&L6SXp

What does this change for people living there?

香港易事泊 Hong Kong e-Services Provider2? |$zz9sN

The findings will not change much in people's day-to-day life in the Greater Mekong Subregion, in South East Asia.

;K ns;`5?a;?0

7B9X F Gs k:t,Z:n.T0Tackling malaria is about more than just picking the right treatment after an infection.

o)R1QY[ C"b8{ t0L0

*uo?/t6F"L2Ur5m ]^0All the efforts around controlling the mosquitoes that spread the disease will not change.

VzOPL+b#h7u%A n(L0 香港易事泊 Hong Kong e-Services ProviderDyk~'q;o0F

However, the researchers say the drugs people are given after an infection should change.

y7v8m.z)g4f"s0 香港易事泊 Hong Kong e-Services Provider F,~]0cyh,b[(_,nwQ9x

The studies also show genetic analysis of malaria parasites can help doctors keep one step ahead of emerging drug-resistance in order to give patients the right treatment.香港易事泊 Hong Kong e-Services Provider/E%R5q"a+WK n P }E

Is this the whole picture?

香港易事泊 Hong Kong e-Services Provider@ F7un)zQ hY I8br(y

The spread of resistance is set against the backdrop of falling cases in the region. 香港易事泊 Hong Kong e-Services ProviderK7~6L$O+zLc h [;AD3g

uur;s1o-Lu)}4e;P0"These parasites are scary beasts, there's no doubt," Prof Colin Sutherland, from the London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine, said.

AA6a$Q:bs'g0J0 香港易事泊 Hong Kong e-Services ProviderX2q w\jb5P

"However, I wonder if these parasites are not very fit because the population as a whole is crashing."

Ay+I/`EO0

}E cu9c%T8y4HM'H0In Cambodia there were:

|5D;s)PO4GzI5I0
  • 262,000 cases of malaria in 2008
  • 36,900 cases of malaria in 2018

~'K$sIP0u0So, while the drug-resistant parasite has undoubtedly spread, it is not necessarily a global threat, according to Prof Sutherland. 香港易事泊 Hong Kong e-Services Provider:j.Q/aM |H-a

$w:I7[}'G]*z0"The implications are not as severe as we might think," he said.

?]*~-q4yN+go+jC H0

How bad is malaria?

3E%e:Q*OQ({0There are about 219 million cases of malaria around the world each year. 香港易事泊 Hong Kong e-Services Provider`C mRR k#R

香港易事泊 Hong Kong e-Services Providerd2AR'G4c

Symptoms include cycles of feeling cold and shivering followed by a high temperature with severe sweating.香港易事泊 Hong Kong e-Services ProviderS4J4V4B cuP

&[z3R a+A"V0Without treatment, the parasite can lead to breathing problems and organ failure. 香港易事泊 Hong Kong e-Services Provider7P$SO!sb

wCE n KN,f#k0The disease kills about 435,000 people every year - most of them are children under the age of five. 香港易事泊 Hong Kong e-Services Provider({K f9oI#]cX([0x

"d8Yy(x;a{z;pS0Follow James on Twitter.

%]4E G w$geS*g0
頂:2 踩:3
對本文中的事件或人物打分:
當前平均分:-1.17 (18次打分)
對本篇資訊內容的質量打分:
當前平均分:-0.82 (11次打分)
【已經有12人表態】
5票
感動
1票
路過
1票
高興
1票
難過
1票
搞笑
1票
憤怒
1票
無聊
1票
同情
上一篇 下一篇